Nouvelle étude sur le fléau des déchets plastique et l’ampleur du phénomène

Sac, bouteille, flacons en tous genre certaines plages ressemblent déjà à des décharges. Les chercheurs américains livrent des nouveaux chiffres, ils sont vertigineux, chaque seconde 412 kilogramme de plastique qui sont déversé dans les mers.

Les déchets sont si nombreux qu’on parle d’un septième continent, il fait plusieurs fois la surface de la France. En moins de deux ans le système des courants a réunis les déchets au centre de l’atlantique ce tourbillon est appelé un gyre océanique. Des gyre, il y en a dans tous les océans du monde, dans l’océan indien dans l’océan Pacific nord qui est le plus important des gyres qu’on appelle le septième continent, il fait six fois la France.

Ce sont principalement de déchets qui viennent de la consommation, des emballages, des bouteilles, mais également, il y en a qui viennent des activités maritimes comme des morceaux de filet. Les plus gros déchets ne représentent que 10 % des déchets à la surface des océans et donc ca ne peut pas suffire à faire un continent sur lequel on peut marcher. Le reste des déchets, les 90 % sont des produits dégradés, des micros particules, il y en a 5 000 milliards.

Au fond de l’océan se trouvent les déchets lourds, et c’est beaucoup plus que les 270 000 tonnes que les chercheurs ont trouvés dans la surface. Il y a plus 10 millions de tonnes de déchets plastic au fond de l’océan. Le problème est que les déchets resteront pendant des centaines d’années, car la dégradation est beaucoup plus lente et il y a des zones d’accumulation que les chercheurs ne connaissent pas encore.

En surface, ces déchets représentent des répercussions sur le monde marin avec beaucoup de dégâts sur la faune. Ce problème n’est pas réparable, car il est impossible de tamiser l’ensemble des océans pour récupérer cette soupe de plastique ou descendre à 1000 mètres pour récupérer les déchets marins. En revanche, on peut penser à l’avenir et arrêter de rejeter nos déchets en mer.


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